Where do the krebs cycle and electron transport take place
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We all need energy to function, and we get that energy from the foods we eat. Extracting those nutrients necessary to keep us going and then converting them into useable energy is the job of our cells. This complex yet efficient metabolic process, called cellular respiration , converts the energy derived from sugars, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, a high-energy molecule that drives processes like muscle contraction and nerve impulses. Glycolysis literally means "splitting sugars," and it is the step process by which sugars are released for energy. Glycolysis can also occur without oxygen, a process called anaerobic respiration, or fermentation. When glycolysis occurs without oxygen, cells make small amounts of ATP. Fermentation also produces lactic acid, which can build up in muscle tissue , causing soreness and a burning sensation.
The Kreb's Cycle is an aerobic process consisting of eight definite steps. In order to enter the Kreb's Cycle pyruvate must first be converted into Acetyl-CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex found in the mitochondria.
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The organelles we call mitochondria are found in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells. Their most immediate function is to produce adenosine triphosphate ATP by systematically extracting energy from nutrient molecules substrates. ATP is the universal energy-yielding commodity in cells, used by enzymes to perform a wide range of cellular functions. We cannot survive, even for a moment, without a sufficient supply of ATP. In order to understand the role of mitochondria in cells, you will need some very basic concepts concerning how cells store and transfer energy. All molecules contain energy, stored in the molecular structure itself.
In eukaryotic cells, the pyruvate molecules produced at the end of glycolysis are transported into mitochondria , which are sites of cellular respiration. If oxygen is available, aerobic respiration will go forward. In mitochondria, pyruvate will be transformed into a two-carbon acetyl group by removing a molecule of carbon dioxide that will be picked up by a carrier compound called coenzyme A CoA , which is made from vitamin B 5. The resulting compound is called acetyl CoA. Figure 4.
The previous tutorial concentrated on the first stages of cellular respiration i. You should know that glycolysis produces pyruvate and some ATP. The pyruvate can be used in fermentation, but it can also be used in another manner. There are many high-energy electrons left in pyruvate. Next, you will learn how cells complete cellular respiration by oxidizing pyruvate to form carbon dioxide.
Respiration (Higher Level)